หน้าหลัก AAV Today Response to Gram's Stains Comments

Response to Gram's Stains Comments

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1
ภาษา:
english
วารสาร:
AAV Today
DOI:
10.2307/27670215
Date:
April, 1987
ไฟล์:
PDF, 243 KB
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1

Objection to Beak/Feather Disease Comments

ปี:
1987
ภาษา:
english
ไฟล์:
PDF, 243 KB
2

Consider Brain Lesion with Blindness

ปี:
1987
ภาษา:
english
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PDF, 201 KB
Association of Avian Veterinarians

Response to Gram's Stains Comments
Author(s): Alan M. Fudge
Source: AAV Today, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., 1987), p. 12
Published by: Association of Avian Veterinarians
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27670215 .
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9*1

Mif

?x{i?Sue*tce,...

to Gram's

IME: Response
Stains Comments

With regard to IME's 697 and 698, I
would agree that the Gram's stain is
only a qualitative aid in assessing the
microflora

of

lab, we
small,

the avian

simply

grade
or

moderate,

three most

The
Gram's

stains

cultures

are:

negative

large

in number

common

reasons

of

1) presence

anaerobes;

of

Australians

gram

of the sample in the
practice lab; 3) swabbing the pharynx
a Gram's

a sample

submit

then

stain,

For

laboratory.

are

a better

to screen

place

for

a bird

in fact the

feather picking, when
pharynx

show

may

visual

and

of

failure

of

the Gram's

negative

that

shows

few
on

organisms

or

no

may

Pseudomonas)

Gram's
without
choose
for

flora

to provide

stain

"diarrhea,"

any
the

choana

assessment.

over

a

I will

always

success

improved with this approach as many
practitioners have found when
comparing

separate

cultures

hanging

around.

not

?; 

Robert

is

California

Remember,

was

the bird

Wright, North

Pole,

to

Reaction
in Pigeons

Vaccine

Pox

may

are

other

for

of pox.

the prevention

Leg feathers were plucked and the
vaccine was brushed into the empty
follicles as directed. Ten of the birds

that the

there

an

to normal.

back

IME: Adverse

in the above

that

not

came

severe

with

down

-

clinical

signs

lethargy, off feed, and large lesions
the

around

eyes

and mouth.

no deaths. One month

non-viral

were

revaccinated

and

no morbidity

with
was

were

There

later 24 birds
the

same

vaccine

noted.

The vaccine was Vineland Pigeon
Pox Vaccine of live virus chicken
embryo origin. The vaccine is
for use

recommended

observations.

E. Schmidt,

of Gatorade

recommended

not mean

are

amount

small

intranuclear

inclusions

a

soda/water/chocolate

seen

intranuclear

there

A

?Annette
Alaska

as a prevention

of

pox in racing homer pigeons only. It
DVM,

PhD,

may

Veterinary Diagnostics,

cause

permanent

lesions

color change which would

Inc.

or

exhibition

show

pigeons.

or

feather

disqualify
Vaccination

should be administered only to healthy
birds and can be done as early as 4

submitted

from both ends of the same bird. I'm
not really interested in what's passing
through at the moment, but rather
what's

that

the

The owner of 60 young racing
pigeons vaccinated all birds as

and
been

of baking
soda was
water
of warm
and

later administered and within

hour,

species and I believe

does

morphologic

the cloaca/feces

Clinical

was

other viral diseases that affect the feather
follicle of psittacines (i.e., papovavirus),

and

guidance

minutes.

in a

species.

of

1 teaspoon
to a quart

the

diseases which can cause grossly noted
feather abnormalities, but the disease
called psittacine beak and feather (or
feather and beak) disease does occur in
a variety of psittacine species based on

on

with

pre-assessment

This

or

media.
Without

disease

crop,"
added

regurgitate

depend on the stage of the disease.

stain,

appear

concerning

a similiar

have

presence

gram

but has a hemogram that strongly
suggests "bacterial infection"; twelve
hours later, a heavy bacterial growth
(e.g.,

of

mentioned
to

stain

the Gram's

correct
of

inclusions

indicate culture results might be in the
Amazon parrot with an inflamed
pharynx

are

intracytoplasmic

perhaps

olfactory changes (which often correlate
A classic
with abnormal flora.)
example

workers

to place

made

and have dark diarrhea over the next 30

the Australian

experience

has been electron microscopic
confirmation of the virus in a Ring
necked parakeet (Psittacula) with
identical histologie lesions. Both

or

disease

respiratory

In my

were

Attempts

syringe was used to repeatedly flush out
the crop. The bird continued to

I have seen histologie lesions that are
identical to those recently reported in
cockatoos from Florida (JA VMA, 189,
pg. 999) in several species including
lovebirds and Eclectus parrots, and there

bacteriologically. All too often,
practitioners will submit fecal cultures
(with no clinical changes in the stool) as
a screen

parrots.

variety

#3, the use of a sterile slide can
eliminate the need for swabbing twice.
Clinically, I do not agree that the
feces

viral-caused

concerning

occurrence

to

reswabbing

to the

Comments

feather problems in a variety of
psittacines. She specifically mentions
lovebirds (Agapornis) and Eclectus

with

over

2)

to Beak/

Disease

cage.

the bird back on the perch, but he
continued to fall off. A few minutes
later, the bird started regurgitating the
chocolate and passing very dark stools.
Using a home remedy for "sour

Dr. Helga Gerlach has stated (IME
703) that she disagrees with the

a

decolorization
for

seen ingesting chocolate cake with
chocolate icing. The bird became
lethargic and later was noticed sitting
with ruffled feathers on the bottom of

the hood."

IME: Objection
Feather

In our
portals.
an organism
as

to correlate

fail

under

the

type.

morphologic

"check

always

?Alan M Fudge, DVM,
Citrus Heights,
California

IME: Chocolate Toxicity
During a birthday celebration, a 1
year old tame African Grey Parrot was

weeks

I

of

age.

A

vaccination

"take"

is

determined by noting a swelling at the
site of administration 10 to 14 days
following the vaccination. If no "take" is

12 THE AVIAN PRACTITIONER

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